About 280 pairs are on Sakhalin Island and a few on the Kurile Islands. Once it reaches roughly adult size in the fledgling stage, few predators can threaten this species. Steller’s sea eagle is the largest erne species (Haliaeetus genus) being as well one of the largest birds of prey in the world. This species was first described as Aquila pelagica by Prussian naturalist Peter Simon Pallas, in 1811. Females vary in weight from 6,195 to 9,500 g (13.658 to 20.944 lb), while males being rather lighter with a weight range of 4,900 to 6,800 g (10.8 to 15.0 lb). Alternate nests are usually built within 900 m (3,000 ft) of each other. Utekhina, I., Potapov, E., & McGRADY, M. J. [3][18][19][20][21] At its average weight, the Steller's seems to outweigh the average harpy by approximately 500 g (1.1 lb) and the average Philippine eagles by more than 1,000 g (2.2 lb). Outside the breeding range, food bases in the principal wintering areas are so far secure. The bold color patterns of adults may be an important signal influencing the formation of feeding groups. [12] Alaska pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), along with the cod, is the most important food source for wintering eagles in Japan. [12] In Korean, the eagle is called chamsuri (true eagle). [3] In Russian, the eagle has been called morskoi orel (sea eagle), pestryi morskoi orel (mottled sea eagle) or beloplechii orlan (white-shouldered eagle). niger. It primarily survives on fish and prefers the coastal areas of Russia (Sea of Okhotsk) or Japan where it is found in the greatest numbers. [3] The feet are very powerful despite not bearing talons as long as those of a harpy eagle. The Steller’s Sea Eagle is named after Georg Wilhelm Steller, a noted 18 th-century explorer and zoologist. "Philippine Birds of Prey: Interrelations among habitat, morphology and behavior", Steller’s Sea Eagle – The Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden, Japan's Winter Wildlife Zoom In @ National Geographic Magazine, "Steller's sea eagle videos, photos and facts – Haliaeetus pelagicus", Diet of the Steller’s Sea Eagle in the northern Sea of Okhotsk, "Seasonal change in habitat use in Steller's sea eagles", "Kamatchka:Golden Eagle fights Steller's Sea Eagle", Steller's sea eagle photo – Haliaeetus pelagicus – G113853, The Secret Lives of Sea Eagles – National Wildlife Federation, Photo Keywords : steller's sea eagle : White-tailed Eagle and Steller's Sea Eagle, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Steller%27s_sea_eagle&oldid=985113514, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 01:21. Around 4,000 of these eagles live there. (2010). Many of the experts consider that Harpy eagle is the world largest eagle and other two eagles that are close to harpy are steller’s sea eagle and Philippine eagle. These mainly include habitat alteration, industrial pollution, and overfishing, which in turn decrease their prey source. Nests are built on large rocky outcroppings or at the tops of large trees on the coast and alongside large rivers with mature trees. A 1996 Analysis of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA showed that Steller's sea eagle diverged from a lineage that gave rise to the bald eagle and white-tailed eagle around 3 to 4 million years ago. The skull is around 14.6 cm (5.7 in) in total length, the culmen is from 62 to 75 mm (2.4 to 3.0 in) and the bill from the gape to the tip is around 117 mm (4.6 in). The Steller's sea eagle is the largest among other sea eagles and the heaviest of all the known eagles. Aquila pelagica (Pallas, 1811) The Steller's sea eagle is less prone to vagrancy than the white-tailed eagle, as it lacks the long-range dispersal typical of juveniles of that species,[36][37] but vagrant eagles have been found in North America, at locations including the Pribilof Islands and Kodiak Island, and inland in Asia to as far as Beijing in China and Yakutsk in Russia's Sakha Republic, and south to as far as Taiwan. Steller's sea eagles that do migrate fly down to winter in rivers and wetlands in Japan, but will occasionally move to mountainous inland areas as opposed to the sea coast. [3][29] A very rare dark morph, once regarded as a separate subspecies H. p. niger, lacks white in its plumage, except for the tail. All records listed on our website are current and up-to-date. No subspecies are recognised. Comments below may relate to previous holders of this record. Immatures use kleptoparasitism as much as adults, but are attacked more often by adults than birds of similar age. [17], First and intermediate plumages are difficult to distinguish from those of the white-tailed eagle, which co-occurs in the entire breeding range of the Steller's. It is believed that they are glacial relics that evolved i… (Eds.). Haast’s eagle (Harpagornis moorei) The largest eagle that ever lived on Earth, was the Haast’s eagle. In one case, a wildlife veteranian was badly injured when a female eagle grabbed his arm and embedded her talons, piercing through to the other side of his arm. and three-spined stickleback (Gastrossteus aculeatus). [12], Steller's sea eagle is known to make a deep barking cry, ra-ra-ra-raurau, in aggressive interactions, its call similar to the white-tailed eagles but deeper. The eggs range from 78 to 85 mm (3.1 to 3.3 in) height and 57.5 to 64.5 mm (2.26 to 2.54 in) in width and weigh around 160 g (5.6 oz), being slightly larger than those of harpy eagles. [17], Steller's sea eagle is the largest bird in the genus Haliaeetus and is one of the largest raptors overall. [41] They also show a strong local preference for slaty-backed gulls (Larus schistisagus). The total population is around 3,200 breeding pairs. Thalassaetus pelagicus (Pallas), Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) is a large diurnal bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. [29][40] Smaller mammals have also been recorded as prey, including northern red-backed vole (Clethrionomys rutilus) and tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus). On the whole, the species' outlook is favorable. [3][19][22] Steller's sea eagle can range in total length from 85 to 105 cm (2 ft 9 in to 3 ft 5 in), apparently males average about 89 cm (2 ft 11 in) in length, while females average about 100 cm (3 ft 3 in), marginally shorter on average than the harpy eagle and about 65 mm (2.6 in) shorter than the Philippine eagle. [12] In summer, live fish, typically in the range of 20 to 30 cm (7.9 to 11.8 in) in length, are fed to the young at the nest. About 500 pairs live in the Khabarovsk region of the Okhostsk coast, and 100 on the Shantar Islands. [12] Definitive plumage is probably reached in the fourth to fifth year of life, based on data from captives. [30], Fish make up about 80% of the diet of eagles nesting in the Amur River; elsewhere, other prey form almost an equal proportion of the diet. Steller’s sea eagle, one of the world’s largest raptors, with a wingspan of nearly three meters. [3][20] The wingspan is from 1.95 to 2.5 m (6 ft 5 in to 8 ft 2 in) and the wing chord measurement is 560 to 680 mm (22 to 27 in). There are no more than 5,000 of these magnificent birds worldwide and nearly half the population congregates on the sea ice here each winter. It was originally described by Peter Simon Pallas in 1811. [47] As in many sea and fish eagles, Steller's sea eagle may attempt to steal (and occasionally succeed in procuring) fish from osprey (Pandion haliaetus) where they coexist. [13], This species is monotypic, although a dubious subspecies has been named; H. p. The largest eagle in the world is Steller's Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), which weighs 5-9 kg (11-20 lb) and has a wing-span of 2.2-2.45 m (7 ft 2 in-8 ft 0.3 in). Tingay, R. E., & Katzner, T. E. Steller's Sea Eagle, 250 cm (98.4 inches) Steller’s sea eagle is one of the largest birds of prey found in the coastal areas of northeastern Asia where its main prey is fish and sea birds. 4. Winter in Hokkaido, Japan’s most northerly island. International Union for Conservation of Nature, "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species", http://kamchatka.org.ru/eng/aboutK/fauna.html, "New World vultures, Secretarybird, kites, hawks & eagles", "Steller's Sea Eagle – Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens". Read harpy eagle facts. Steller’s sea eagle has the second largest wingspan among all sea eagles. Possibly, up to 3,500 birds winter on Kamchatka, and another roughly 2,000 may occur on Hokkaido. Any of these small, clever nest predators rely on distraction and stealth to prey on the eagle's nests and are killed if caught by either of the parents. Brown plumage with white wings and tail, and blackish-brown beak it lives in coastal areas and on lakes the... Congregates on the Kurile Islands E14 9SH United Kingdom Far Eastern Russia is known for its large..., Saito, K. 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