as well as relating this new information with your own experiences involving your own "memory." Elaborative rehearsal is a memory technique that involves thinking about the meaning of the term to be remembered, as opposed to simply repeating the word to yourself over and over. Craik and Lockhart (1972) argued that deep processing leads to better long-term memory than shallow processing. Visit the Intro to Psychology: Help and Review page to learn more. 3. Craik(Eds. - Definition, Components & Examples, Retroactive Interference: Definition & Examples, Declarative Memory: Definition & Examples, Functional Fixedness in Psychology: Definition & Examples, Recognition vs Recall: Definitions & Differences, Primary Reinforcers: Definition & Examples, Retrograde Amnesia: Definition, Causes & Treatment, The Two-Store Model of Memory: Types of Memory and Storage, Glencoe Understanding Psychology: Online Textbook Help, Worth Publishers Psychology: Online Textbook Help, DSST Substance Abuse: Study Guide & Test Prep, Educational Psychology Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, Social Psychology Syllabus Resource & Lesson Plans, GACE School Psychology (605): Practice & Study Guide. It could be singing the states of the US in alphabetical order, or it could be taking the first letter of a list of items we need to remember and making a sentence with words that begin with those letters. Elaborative processing or investigation (explaining) is a good way to learn things to the extent that you’ll be able to learn a particular material whether or not you actually try. Eysenck (1990) claims that the levels of processing theory describes rather than explains. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 a mind map). Thus, only the stimuli changes are described below. 's' : ''}}. https://www.simplypsychology.org/levelsofprocessing.html. Tactile Encoding. Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis (e.g. The elaboration likelihood model is a theory of persuasion that suggests that there are two different ways people can be persuaded of something, depending on how invested they are in a topic. Elaborative Rehearsal. 2. As you can see, if elaboration is high, then you will process the decision through your central route. How Long Does IT Take To Get A PhD IN Nursing? ), Levels of processing in human memory. To determine which route to use, the model says that three factors determine whether your elaboration is likely to be high. Select a subject to preview related courses: For example, Adam is going to take a vocabulary exam in his 7th grade English class. E.g. The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) is a dual process theory that describes the change in attitudes and beliefs. Let's say their last name is Fisher. For example, you might try to figure out how a lesson on animal biology fits into what you already know about your dog (or cat). | 1 Semantic processing: ‘Does the word go in this sentence . The term elaboration can be used to mean a lot of different things.However, when we are talking about studying using elaboration, it involves explaining and describing ideas with many details. For instance, we can link the information to our personal experience or situation. Elaboration is a cognitive process whereby material is extended or added to (elaborated) to make it more memorable. 1. 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The theory is an improvement on Atkinson & Shiffrin’s account of transfer from STM to LTM. McLeod, S. A. Consequently more information will be remembered (and recalled) and better exam results should be achieved. Get ready for your Elaborative Rehearsal Involves tests by reviewing key facts, theories, examples, synonyms and definitions with study sets created by students like you. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 268-294. Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Year: 1979 Type: inbook Status: published Category: Sentence Memory Downloads: An elaborative processing explanation of depth of processing. Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. For example, you need to remember the term "neuron." Eysenck, M. W. & Keane, M. T. (1990). 14 chapters | Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. . Many students lack basic elaboration skills, so it’s important that instructors who are using teaching elaboration techniques scaffold elaborative questions for these students. This is because of the ambiguity and unknown aspects of the endeavor at the time of the initial planning. Therefore, it cannot be objectively measured. Unlike the multi-store model it is a non-structured approach. But I found out she really doesn't like animals and she definitely doesn't have a hippo!'. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Many times we can create mnemonics- which are that use a pattern of letters, ideas, or associations to remember something - as a form of elaborative rehearsal. Tactile encoding is encoding and processing of feeling of touching something. Examples h, As you read this chapter in psychology, you frequently ask yourself "why" questions, such as "Why would that be true?" Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Elaborative rehearsal (or relational rehearsal) is an aspect of memory encoding and is an associative process, a deep form of processing information that needs remembering by establishing associations by thought of the object's meaning as well as making connections between the object, past experiences and the other objects of focus.. Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal (repetition to help us hold something in the STM) and leads to fairly short-term retention of information. imaginable degree, area of https://www.simplypsychology.org/levelsofprocessing.html. Photosynthesis is a process where plants take in carbon dioxide from the air and produce oxygen. Three examples of this are. Create your account. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,600],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_14',197,'0','0']));report this ad. For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge. . "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it.” (1973, p. 48). Examples of elaborative encoding include the peg word system and the method of loci ways of recalling information. However, they failed to provide a detailed account of why deep processing is so effective. Participants were then given a long list of 180 words into which the original words had been mixed. Therefore, memory is more complex than described by the LOP theory. The above examples could all be used to revise psychology using semantic processing (e.g. JOURNAL OF VERBAL LEARNING AND VERBAL BEHAVIOR 21, 165-- 174 (1982) Elaborative Encoding as an Explanation of Levels of Processing GARY L. BRADSHAW AND JOHN R. ANDERSON Carnegie-Mellon University Three experiments were performed to study how elaboration of memory structures affects recall accuracy and response latency. Good test takers are really good at elaborative rehearsal because they know how to study; they tie new information together with things they already have in their long-term memory. Serving or tending to elaborate; ... For example, performance on the Johnson quotation in Table 1 was assessed by a question on elaborative rehearsal. If so, you probably had to do a dress rehearsal. succeed. ... Ex. Levels of processing. How Long Does IT Take To Get a PhD in Law? Despite these strengths, there are a number of criticisms of the levels of processing theory:eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'simplypsychology_org-large-mobile-banner-2','ezslot_17',863,'0','0'])); eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-leader-2','ezslot_18',880,'0','0']));• It does not explain how the deeper processing results in better memories. 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