Powered by WordPress and the Graphene Theme. [13] The American consul in Jerusalem informed the Israeli government of their plans and, according to Carter, Prime Minister Begin said that the operation was over.[13]. Dabei wurden zwischen 1.000 und 2.000 Personen getötet und nach Schätzungen der libanesischen Regierung rund 280.000 vertrieben. 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The quantity of water discharged from the basin is equivalent to 24% of the net rainfall received by the entire Lebanese territories; this quantity represents more than 40% of the total amount of running water in the internal rivers. The Litani River flows from several sources called Al-Oleik sources, located 10 km west of Baalbek, at an altitude of 1000 meters. [11] According to Augustus Richard Norton, professor of international relations at Boston University, the IDF military operation killed approximately 1,100 people, most of them Palestinian and Lebanese. Millions of people planned to come to Israel this year but were forced to cancel due to the pandemic. ABC-CLIO. Martin, Gus (2013). The fact that Israel is trying to destroy all of Lebanon, not just Hizbullah, is clear by their bombing of Christian villages and other infrastructure that has nothing to do with Hizbullah. On April 19, 1978, the SLA shelled UNIFIL headquarters, killing 8 UN soldiers. Retrieved 4 November 2019. p. 151. Berdawni River, Chtoura River, Qib Elias River, Saadnayel spring, Amik spring, Khrayzat spring, Machgara spring. [4][5] Syrian troops deployed inside Lebanon, some of which were within visual range of the IDF, but did not take part in the fighting. The River’s course deviates westward at Al-Khardali bridge, near Beaufort Castle (Qalaat al-Chakif) towards Deir Mimas at an altitude of 235 meters where it is called “Qasimiya River” which flows into the Mediterranean Sea at a distance of 8 km to the North of Tyre city. The ground forces were led by two division commanders, and attacked simultaneously along the entire front. The Litani River gets its source from the melting snows of the mountains of Lebanon, and it flows south and then west into the Mediterranean Sea just below the Lebanese city of Tyre. Sage Publications. Israeli forces withdrew later in 1978, turning over positions inside Lebanon to their ally, the South Lebanon Army (SLA) militia under the leadership of Maj. Saad Haddad. The 1978 South Lebanon conflict was an invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River, carried out by the Israel Defense Forces in 1978 in response to the Coastal Road massacre. [12] Arafat and Khalil Wazir ordered the arrest of all involved and Abu Daoud was later accused of collaborating with Fatah renegade Abu Nidal to break the ceasefire.[12]. This is disappointing for them − and downright disastrous for the Israeli tourism industry. The operation was first called "AVI HACHOCHMA" (Father of wisdom), later changed to "Operation Litani". Israel has lodged multiple complaints regarding Lebanon's conduct.[20]. The area south of the Litani River, excepting Tyre, was invaded and occupied in a week long offensive. [12] The PLO's initial reaction was that the resolution didn't apply to them because it didn't mention the PLO. [9] This massacre was the proximate cause of the Israeli invasion three days later.[10]. The Litani River crosses the Bekaa Valley from North to South while maintaining a an altitude ranging between 800 to 1000 meters. Nachdem er aus den Bergen herausgetreten ist, fließt er durch das Hügelland der Dschabal-Amel-Region dem Mittelmeer entgegen, in das er nördlich von Tyros mündet. [12] The PLO retreated north of the Litani River, continuing to fire at the Israelis. The Litani River Basin in the southern part of Lebanon is in addition to the Jordan River Basin, the most important water source in the region, and it is not surprising that Israel and Lebanon have often encountered an armed conflict. In response to the invasion, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 425 and Resolution 426 calling for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon were both adopted on March 19, 1978. In southernmost part of the Bekaa Valley, the Litani River receives the water of Ain Zarqa and Ghalleh springs. Palestinian factions also attacked UNIFIL, kidnapping an Irish UNIFIL soldier in 1981 and continuing to occupy areas in southern Lebanon.[15]. It led to the creation … It led to the creation of the UNIFIL peacekeeping force and an almost complete Israeli withdrawal. Archived from the original on 6 June 2015. März 1978 mit 25.000 Soldaten in den Libanon ein und besetzte das Gebiet südlich des Flusses Litani. [12] The PLO leadership finally ordered a ceasefire on March 28, 1978, after a meeting between UNIFIL commander General Emmanual Erskine and Yasser Arafat in Beirut. The operation began with air, artillery, and naval bombardment, after which IDF infantry and armor forces, comprising about 25,000 soldiers in total, entered south Lebanon. From 1968 on, the PLO, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and other Palestinian groups established a quasi-state in southern Lebanon, using it as a base for raids on civilian targets in northern Israel, as well as worldwide terror attacks on Israeli and other targets. Israel buttressed its claim by citing the Cotton Plan, named for a never-quite-identified American hydrologist. At present, no armed fighting is taking place due to the Litani River, but they were held in the past (the war … 2290 km². The Litani River crosses the Bekaa Valley from North to South while maintaining a an altitude ranging between 800 to 1000 meters. Sign in to stop seeing this. (Fisk, 152–154). The Israelis first captured a belt of land approximately 10 kilometers deep, by launching a ground attack on all PLO positions along the Lebanese border with Israel. Private O'Mahoney survived (being shot by a sub-machine gun during the incident) in SLA territory; in a separate incident another Irish soldier, Private S. Griffin, was shot by Haddad's men, and was evacuated to Israel where he subsequently died during medical treatment. [11] Many Lebanese civilians were killed by heavy Israeli shelling and air strikes, which also caused extensive property damage and internal displacement. In diesem Bereich durchfließt er auf 30 km eine bis zu 275 m tiefe Schlucht. According to IDF reporting and internal investigation, at least 550 of the casualties were Palestinian militants initially holding the front line and killed by the IDF ground operation. Management and Maintenance of The Qaraoun Dam, Rehabilitation and Maintenance Projects for Hydroelectric Facilities, Executed Projects – Hydraulic – Agricultural, Qasimiya and Ras Al Ain Irrigation Project, Service and Guidance Center in Kherbet Kanafar, Supervising and Implementation of the Pilot Irrigation Projects, Measuring the Amount of Surface Water and Groundwater, Monitoring Water Quality in the Litani Basin, Litani River Basin Management Support (LRBMS), Water Development Project for Marjeyoun (UNDP). The Syrian occupation of Lebanon led to UN Security Council Resolution 1559 demanding the remaining 14,000 (of 50,000 originally) Syrian troop withdrawal and the dismantling of Hezbollah and Palestinian militias. Private Kevin Joyce was kidnapped and is presumed dead. This fresh water river has been coveted by the evil Israelis for decades as a method of solving their severe water drought, but the problem is that the Litani River does not flow through Israeli territory, and its closest approach to … Im Verlauf der Operation Litani marschierte die israelische Armee ab dem 14. The IDF used cluster bombs provided by the United States. The average level of rainfall feeding the basin is 700 mm/year, or about 764 million m3 distributed as follows: 543 million m3 feeding the Qaraoun dam and 221 million m3 feeding the rest of the dams. This was exacerbated by an influx of 3,000 PLO militants fleeing a defeat in the Jordanian civil war and regrouping in southern Lebanon. In April 1980, three Irish UN soldiers (Privates Barrett, Smallhorne and O'Mahoney) were kidnapped and two of them murdered by Christian gunmen.