[31] The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa also institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one's caste or gender. [69] After all of Guru Gobind Singh's children had been killed by the Mughal army and the battle of Muktsar, the Guru wrote a defiant letter in Persian to Aurangzeb, titled Zafarnama (literally, "epistle of victory"), a letter which the Sikh tradition considers important towards the end of the 19th century. [85], The Guru died of his wounds a few days later on 7 October 1708[87] His death fuelled a long and bitter war of the Sikhs with the Mughals. [49][50] Parts of its compositions such as the Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Benti Chaupai are the daily prayers (Nitnem) and sacred liturgical verses used in the initiation of Khalsa Sikhs.[17][51][52]. [24], The education of Guru Gobind Singh continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery. [4][34] Not shaving the head also meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs who lived in Delhi and other parts of the Mughal Empire. Guru Gobind Singh fought 13 battles against the Mughal Empire and the kings of Siwalik Hills. Aurangzeb issued an order to exterminate Guru Gobind Singh and his family. He then administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul (baptization ceremony) of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Masands led the local Sikh communities, local temples, collected wealth and donations for the Sikh cause. He was born in Patna on 22 December 1666, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam. [2] His father made the attempt, but was arrested then publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire. [11][12][13], Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699[4][14][15] and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh (December 22, 1666 in Patna, Bihar, India - October 7, 1708) was the tenth and last of the Ten human form Gurus of Sikhism. [29][30] The Guru also gave them a new surname "Singh" (lion). [29], Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K's tradition of the Khalsa,[31], He also announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. Tobacco, eating 'halal' meat (a way of slaughtering in which the animal's throat is slit open and it is left to bleed before being slaughtered), fornication and adultery were forbidden. [44][17] The standard edition of the text contains 1,428 pages with 17,293 verses in 18 sections. His birth name was Gobind Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahibmarks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life. [85], The tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher, This article is about the tenth Guru of Sikh religion. [citation needed] His two eldest sons, aged 13 and 17, were killed in the Battle of Chamkaur against the Mughal army. [80], Guru Gobind Singh saw the war conduct of Aurangzeb and his army against his family and his people as a betrayal of a promise, unethical, unjust and impious. When all other means have failed, [85] They gained access to the Guru and Jamshed Khan stabbed him with a fatal wound at Nanded. Guru Gobind Singh moulded the Sikh religion into its present form that we see today with the formation of the Khalsa in 1699 and completed the final layout of the perpetual Sikh Guru, the Guru Granth Sahib which some will say was his greatest act. He became Guru on November 11, 1675 at the age of nine, following in the footsteps of his father Guru Teg Bahadur. [16] It is a controversial religious text considered to be the second scripture by some Sikhs, and of disputed authority to other Sikhs. [55] Both Mughal administration and Aurangzeb's army had an active interest in Guru Gobind Singh. Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri. The tenth Guru was the only son of the father, ninth Sikh master, Guru Teg Bahadur and mother Mata Gujri. [22][23] After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676. [18] Guru Gobind Singh also declared this text to be the eternal Guru for Sikhs. The Guru returned to the crowd without the volunteer, but with a bloody sword. Guru Gobind Singh wed three times in all. Robert Zaehner (1988), The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, Hutchinson. [2] He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685. [35] Before his founding of the Khalsa, the Sikh movement had used the Sanskrit word Sisya (literally, disciple or student), but the favored term thereafter became Khalsa. He had four children. [10] His four sons died during his lifetime – two in battle, two executed by the Mughal army. [19], Guru Gobind Singh is also credited with the Dasam Granth. He was born in Patna on 22 December 1666, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family [20] while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam. 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