These objectives are usually to turn an uninformed and uninvolved group of people into an involved public. The major concerns were the following: Taking this information back to management, the public relations director worked with the CEO and other senior officers to develop strategies that would generate support for the construction of their building. Banks, investors, brokerage firms, stock holders etc. Environmental Activism Revisited: The Changing Nature of Communication through Organizational Public Relations, Special Interest Groups and the Mass Media. It is predictable that public relations professionals who are confined to practicing this approach are often representative of communication technicians and have very little power or participation in the decision-making process of an organization. Some people would need little motivation, while others would need a lot of information and reasons to prepare. It typically consists of planned, one-way communication. This section is revised with permission from Rawlins (2006). This study is one example of a situation when knowing the four publics would be useful. Publics and Stakeholders- A public is any group whose members have a common interest or common values in a particular situation. For the sake of simplicity, in this paper, active and aware publics will be referred to as the “active” publics and the “latent” and “non-publics” will be referred to as the “passive” publics. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Sometimes a defensive approach is the only one that can be used because the organization is falsely accused of certain behaviors or standards; defending itself from such erroneous information is a legitimate and logical recourse. 209). Public Relations Review, 36(2), 134-140. Will an audience need to be convinced that a situation or problem exists before going further with them, or is the audience already searching for information about this topic? They also determine how the customers or other publics perceive a business. The step following problem recognition in sorting people into one of the four publics is finding constraint regonition. It typically consists of planned, one-way communication. The situational theory of publics was developed by J. E. Grunig in 1968. Level of involvement measures how much a person is invested in a problem or organization (Grunig, 1989). Whilst a market has an exchange relationship with an organization, and is usually a passive entity that is created by the organization, a public does not necessarily have an exchange relationship, and is both self-creating and self-organizing. Media publics: This type of publics generally use newsletters, articles, blogs, magazines, radio announcements etc. These groups all have a different way they gather and process information about a topic. March 15, 2008 James 13 Comments. Each of the four publics has a different way of gathering information about a situation. John Deweydefined (Dewey 1927) public as a group … Someone that is a part of an aware or active public will try to understand information to the best of their ability. A post office is a government owned public building.  This is a different concept to the sociological concept of the Öffentlichkeit or public sphere. Each of the four publics have different ways they gather and react to information on a scale from most active to most passive. Level of involvement is measured by the extent to which people connect themselves personally with the situation. There are publics that need to be informed about a topic and publics that need to be informed about how to participate. This is an important question to ask while developing a public relations campaign. Despite the intense scholarly interest in mini-publics, to date their role has been fairly marginal in democratic polities. This term means that rather than fighting change, which often proves to be a losing battle, or simply accommodating themselves to change, organizations attempt to influence change by becoming involved in the public policy process. Messages to these stakeholders should focus on creating awareness and understanding of the issues that affect them. The original mansion would remain on the property with a few minor renovations. These individuals can either support or work against an organization's efforts. They are simply not active on the issue. A business should always be updated about the Government policies and may consult a Government official or advocates etc.